Under the celebrations of International Day for World’s Indigenous People’s Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya organised Demonstration of Indigenous Knowledge System programme on Traditional Technology open air exhibition area from August 09. On the Second day of this programme, Shri Pritam Choudhary (Asst. Programme Coordinator) told that about this programme, traditional artisans from Manipur, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Chhattisgarh will be presented demonstration of traditional technology in the presence of students of Bal Bhawan School, Bhopal and National Design Institute, Bhopal.
On this occasion, Ms. Rashi and Ms. Sakuntala from Thoubal, Manipur told that, Meitei believe that the site of salt spring is guarded by a goddess -Thum Lairembi who is the giver of these natural resources. Meitei salt is traditionally prepared by women under a shed called Thumsung- shang.
Shri Pandit Ram Rajwar and Smt. Sauhadri Bai from Sarguja, Chhattisgarh said that ‘TIRHI’ is actually a traditional technology through which the oil from different oil seeds are expelled. Tirhi is made from two rectangular long wooden slabs which is fixed through a level one upon another. The seeds from which the oil is to be expelled are threshed and steamed. After that the seeds are filled in the small bark baskets.
At a time at least 3-4 filled baskets are put at the centre in between two wooden slabs and the pressure is made from the upper slab which allows to expell the oil from the seed basket. Sri Omi Satyam and Sri Bellana Gopalswami from Solaru, Andhra Pradesh said that, In Andhra Pradesh particularly the Vizianagaram district, lime stone is found abundantly. They have traditional earthen furnace Sunnapubatti for firing of raw lime stone. Sunnapubattis are round earthen chambers for firing lime stone.
There are three earthen furnaces each has 2ft. radius and 2ft. height supported with four earthen angles and well placed round air passages for receiving natural air in this earthen chamber they proportionately mix and place charcoal (Boggu) arid lime stone (Sunnapuralu) from bottom of the earthen chamber up to the top. There are separate air blocks inside the chamber putting small and fired clay nieces.
Mr. Punsimba and Mr. Samananda from Thoubal, Manipur told that the process of extracting iron among Kakching people of Manipur is very unique. The most important part of the iron making process among the Kakching is the way they identify the deposits of iron ores in the earth. These mineral deposits are not visible to the surface of ground but have to identify 10 to 12 feet under the ground. The local knowledge systems and skill of identifying and collecting the small pebbles of iron ores makes them very unique.
Smt. Dillo Devi and Smt. Sanjha Devi from Madhubani, Bihar said that, The state of Bihar is well known for production of ‘Makhana. The seed of Makhana popularly known as ‘Gudi’ Is a water plant product cultivated in lakes, ponds and wet lands. Gudi is collected from the lake and ponds and dried in the sun and after the seed of the ‘Gudi’ is extracted.The well dried gudi is roasted in an iron pan & then hammered on a wooden platform to get the Makhana.
Shri Mohan Thakur from Madhubani, Bihar said that, ‘Bhati’a traditional air bellow used to air the furnace which is mostly meant by digging a pit in the earth. This is made of animal hide, shaped as a leaf by binding around the rim of the bellow in three steps. The frontal portion of the bellow is fitted with an iron pipe which opens into the furnace. The rear portion of the bellow is fitted with a chain on the lower side. During operation the chain is pulled up and down the air inside the bellow passes to the furnace through the iron pipe, which help the charcoal to fire.
The iron is fired in this furnace and given a proper shape of an object as required by beating the hot iron. Sri Pappla Satyanaryana and Sri Tuddi Ramakrishan told that Edullumota is a traditional water lifting device, widely distributed in Vizianagaram & Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. The farmers of this area are depended for irrigation on canal, well, tank and streams.
In this technique the mechanism is simple but interesting as water lifting container called ‘Guna’ works under backward & forward motion. The Guna tied with a rope attached to yoke through the wooden wheel become in force while motion of the animal forward & backward, while moving backward the water container open automatically due to water pressure and closed in forward motion automatically.